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Renewable Energy
Use of Stored Energy in PMSG Rotor Inertia for Low-Voltage Ride-Through in Back-to-Back NPC Converter-Based Wind Power Systems
The increasing installed wind power capacity has caused wind power generation to become a significant percentage of the entire electric power generation. As a consequence, the power system operators have included wind power plants regulation to improve the control of the overall power system, both in steady-state and transient operation. Therefore, wind power systems are required to verify the grid connection requirements stated by the power system operators. In presence of grid voltage dips, the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) requirement compliance produces a mismatch between the generated active power and the active power delivered to the grid. The conventional solution assumes that the active power surplus is dissipated in a dc-link resistor. In this paper, a control scheme for the back-to-back neutral-point-clamped converter is proposed. Under grid voltage dip, the controllers for generator-side and grid-side converters work concurrently to meet the LVRT requirement by storing the active power surplus in the turbine-generator mechanical system inertia while keeping constant the dc-link voltage. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed control scheme.
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Cognitive Radio Networks with Energy Harvesting
We consider a cognitive radio network with an energy-harvesting secondary transmitter to improve both energy efficiency and spectral efficiency. The goal of this paper is to determine an optimal spectrum sensing policy that maximizes the expected total throughput subject to an energy causality constraint and a collision constraint. The energy causality constraint comes from the fact that the total consumed energy should be equal to or less than the total harvested energy, while the collision constraint is required to protect the primary user. We first show that the system can be divided into a spectrum-limited regime and an energy-limited regime depending on where the detection threshold for the spectrum sensor lies. Assuming infinite battery capacity, we derive the optimal detection threshold that maximizes the expected total throughput subject to the energy causality constraint and the collision constraint. Analytical and numerical results show that the system is energy-limited if the energy arrival rate is lower than the expected energy consumption for a single spectrum access. They also show that a decreasing probability of accessing the occupied spectrum does not always result in decreased probability of accessing the idle spectrum in the energy-limited regime.
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A dynamic calibration technique for temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy
A novel, rapid and accurate calibration procedure as a means for quantitative gas desorption measurement by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy is presented. Quantitative measurement beyond the linear regime of the instrument is achieved by associating an instantaneous calibrated molar flow rate of gas to the detector response. This technique is based on fundamental methods, and is independently verified by comparison to the hydrogen desorption capacity of a known standard metal hydride with known stoichiometry. The TPD calibration procedure described here may be used for any pure gas, and the accuracy is demonstrated for the specific case of hydrogen.
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